‣ Alkaline phosphatase (AP): IFCC method for determination in serum and plasma
‣ GOT (aspartate aminotransferase – AST): IFCC method for determination in serum and plasma
‣ GPT (alanine aminotransferase – ALT): IFCC method for determination in serum and plasma
‣ Pyridoxalphosphat (PYP): Additional reagent for GOT (AST) and GPT (ALT) – Liquid pyridoxal-5-phosphate
‣ Total bilirubin: Jendrassik & Gróf method for determination in serum and plasma
‣ Cholinesterase (CHE): Butyrylthiocholine Standard Method 94 DGKC for determination in serum and plasma
‣ Total protein (TP): Biuret method for determination in serum and plasma
‣ Creatinin: Jaffé method for determination in serum, plasma and urine
‣ Urea: GLDH-UV method for determination in serum, plasma and urine
‣ Uric acid (Urica): PAP method for determination in serum, plasma and urine
‣ Cystatin C: Turbidimetric immunoassay for determination in serum and plasma
‣ α-amylase: Modified EPS method for the determination in serum, plasma and urine
‣ Pancreatic alpha-amylase: Enzymatic colour test for determination in serum, plasma and urine
‣ Creatine kinase (CK-NAC): IFCC method for determination in serum and plasma
‣ α-HBDH: Optimized standard method (DGKC) for determination in serum and plasma
‣ Myoglobin: Turbidimetric immunoassay for determination in serum and plasma
‣ Iron: Ferrozine method for determination in serum and plasma
‣ Ferritin: Turbidimetric immunoassay for determination in serum and plasma
‣ Transferrin: Turbidimetric immunoassay for determination in serum
‣ Cholesterol: CHOD-PAP method for determination in serum and plasma
‣ HDL (High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterin): Direct detection in serum and plasma
‣ LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterin): Direct detection in serum and plasma
‣ Triglyceride: GPO-PAP method for determination in serum and plasma
‣ Glucose: Hexokinase method for determination in serum, plasma, liquor and urine
‣ Glucose: PAP method – Enzymatic colour test for the determination of blood sugar in serum, plasma and liquor
‣ Calcium: Photometric test method (CPC) for determination in serum, plasma and urine
‣ Magnesium: Photometric colour test for determination in serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine
‣ C-reactive protein (CRP): Turbidimetric immunoassay for determination in serum and plasma
‣ Immunoglobulin E (IgE): Turbidimetric immunoassay for determination in serum and plasma
Alkaline phosphatase (AP)
The BIOMED Reagent for Alkaline Phosphatase (AP, also: ALP) is used according to the IFCC method for the quantitative determination of alkaline phosphatase in human serum and plasma.
The alkaline phosphatase measured in serum and plasma corresponds to the sum of all isoenzyme activities of AP originating from different human tissues. Four genotypes are known: bone-liver-kidney type, placenta type, intestinal type and germ cell types.
Increased AP activities are found:
In hepatobiliary diseases (e.g. occlusive icterus, biliary cirrhosis, hepatocellular liver damage, primary liver tumors, liver metastases), skeletal diseases (Paget’s disease, rickets, osteomalacia, osteogenesis imperfecta, dysplasia fibrosa polyostotica, vitamin D intoxication, primary bone tumours, bone metastases, multiple myeloma, hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly, hyperthyroidism, renal failure, fracture healing, ectopic ossification, sarcoidosis, bone tuberculosis)
Degraded AP activities go along with:
Familial hypophosphatasemia, Adyname bone disease in dialysis patients, hypothyroidism, achondrodysplasia, pituitary dwarfism, chronic radiation disease, malnutrition.
GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, new: aspartate aminotransferase AST)
The BIOMED Reagent for GOT (Glutamate Oxalacetate Transaminase, new: Aspartate Aminotransferase AST) is used according to the IFCC method for the quantitative in vitro determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (also: GOT, Glutamate Oxalacetate Transaminase) with and without pyridoxal phosphate (Pyp) in human serum and plasma.
Transaminase determinations are basic tests for the diagnosis, differentiation, assessment of the course and therapy of:
– Disease of the liver and bile ducts
– Heart attack
– Skeletal muscle damage
– during initial internal and paediatric examinations
There is no evidence that the synthesis of transaminases is increased in liver or skeletal muscle diseases. AST is present in a variety of tissues, such as liver, heart and skeletal muscle, kidneys, brain, pancreas, lungs, leucocytes and erythrocytes. Liver, heart and skeletal muscle have a relatively high specific activity of AST compared to other organs. The parallel increase of AST and ALT always indicates hepatocellular necrosis. AST is of major importance in the differential diagnosis of liver diseases and the assessment of the course of heart attacks.
GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase, new: alanine aminotransferase ALT)
The BIOMED GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase, new: alanine aminotransferase ALT) reagent is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (also: GPT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase) with and without pyridoxal phosphate (Pyp) in human serum and plasma according to the IFCC method.
Transaminase determinations are basic tests for the diagnosis, differentiation, assessment of the course and therapy of:
– Disease of the liver and bile ducts
– Heart attack
– Skeletal muscle damage
– during initial internal medicine and pediatric examinations.
There is no evidence that the synthesis of transaminases is increased in liver or skeletal muscle diseases. ALT is a liver-specific enzyme. ALT activities that are more than 15 times higher or the parallel increase of ALT and AST are an indicator of hepatocellular necrosis. However, lower ALT activity is also found in other tissues such as kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, pancreas, spleen and lungs.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PYP)
Additional reagent for GOT (Glutamate Oxalacetate Transaminase, new: Aspartate Aminotransferase AST) and GPT (Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase, new: Liquid pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PYP).
Pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PYP) is required for the determination of GOT/GPT activity according to the IFCC method with pyridoxal phosphate activation.
PYP is important as coenzyme for the activation of transaminases. In patients with vitamin B6 deficiency or in samples with insufficient endogenous pyridoxal phosphate, e.g. in patients with heart attack, liver disease or in intensive care patients, false low activities can be measured without pyridoxal phosphate supplementation. A depletion of NADH would occur in the AST approach if the pyruvate is not removed in the preincubation step would. For optimal determination and stabilization of the transaminases, activation with PYP is therefore recommended.
The BIOMED Bilirubin Total Reagent is used for the photometric determination of total bilirubin in human serum and plasma using the Jendrassik & Gróf method.
The total bilirubin measurable in serum consists of 3 fractions, unconjugated, conjugated and δ bilirubin. The breakdown of the erythrocytes produces 80 – 85 % bilirubin daily. The degradation is carried out by macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system, in the spleen, as well as in the bone marrow and liver. The resulting unconjugated bilirubin is practically insoluble in water and is loosely bound to albumin in plasma and transported to the liver. Glucuronidation produces water-soluble compounds. The resulting conjugated bilirubin reaches the intestine via the bile ducts, where it is broken down by bacterial enzymes into the end products stercobilinogen and urobilinogen. Hyperbilirubinemias are divided into prehepatic, intrahepatic and posthepatic icterus.
Elevated bilirubin levels are associated with various diseases:
– Meulengracht’s disease (disorder of bilirubin degradation)
– Hepatitis (inflammation of the liver)
– fatty liver or cirrhosis of the liver
– bile congestion
– Haemolysis (increased decay of red blood cells due to illness or injury)
Duotrol® Bilirubin Paediatric for the quantitative determination of bilirubin in the high, abnormal range
The BIOMED Cholinesterase (CHE) Reagent is used according to the Butyrylthiocholine Standard Method 94 DGKC for the determination of Cholinesterase (CHE) in human serum and plasma.
Cholinesterases are enzymes that cleave choline compounds. Measurable in the blood is cholinesterase II (also pseudocholinesterase, non-specific cholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, EC 184.108.40.206), it is produced in the liver and occurs in plasma, liver, intestinal mucosa, pancreas, spleen and in the white matter of the central nervous system.
The determination is indicated in case of suspected liver parenchyma damage with reduced functional performance, therefore especially in case of pesticide poisoning and for the control of pesticide exposed workers.
Prolonged apnea after surgery can be avoided by screening prior to the administration of muscle relaxants, especially if there is anamnestic evidence of a CHE variant. The determination is therefore also indicated for prolonged apnea after surgery and other differential diagnostic questions.
Reduced CHE activities will be defined for:
– Acute and chronic hepatitis
– Cirrhosis of the liver
– Liver Cell Carcinoma
– Atypical CHE variants
– Various poisonings
Inhibition of CHE can be caused by pesticides and medication.
Too high CHE values can indicate the following diseases:
– diabetes mellitus
– Family-conditioned cholinesterase variants
– Coronary heart disease (CHD)
– Protein loss (exudative enteropathy, protein loss enteropathy)
– Nephrotic syndrome
– Steatosis hepatis (fatty liver)
The BIOMED Reagent for Total Protein is used according to the Biuret method for the quantitative in vitro determination of total protein in human serum and plasma.
The total protein consists of more than 100 structurally known proteins, the biological function of about 50 is better known. For example, plasma proteins are mainly composed of immunoglobulins, transport proteins (such as albumin), enzymes, lipoproteins, proteohormones and coagulation factors. The serum is slightly lower in protein because the clotting factors for blood clotting have been consumed. Albumin, α1, α2 and β globulins are produced by the parenchyma cells of the liver, the proteins of the γ globulin fraction and the immunoglobulins by the plasma cells. There are known diseases that either increase the total protein concentration (hyperproteinemia) or decrease it (hypoproteinemia).
Indications for the determination of the TP are e.g. pathological blood sedimentation reaction, proteinuria, edema, polyuria, chronic inflammation of the blood vessels. Kidney disease, chron. liver disease, chronic liver disease, chronic liver disease diarrhoea, malignant tumor, susceptibility to infections, bone pain, indefinitely localizable rheumatism, lymphomas, external and internal bleeding, pregnancy, pre- and postoperative, severe trauma, shock, burns, intensive care patients, for clarification of an acute hemoglobin drop.
The BIOMED reagent Creatinine Jaffé is used according to the Jaffé method for the quantitative in vitro determination of creatinine in human serum, plasma and urine.
Creatine, the precursor of creatinine, is produced by the liver and after release is absorbed by the muscles and tissues. Creatinine phosphate serves the muscle as an energy store, because during muscle contraction chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy by splitting creatinine phosphate. Decisive for the size of the creatinine pool is the muscle mass. Age and sex as determining factors of muscle mass therefore have a considerable influence on the creatinine pool. Further influencing factors are creatine intake with food and protein intake. An indication can also be, for example, the recording of a restricted glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
Elevated creatinine levels are an indication of kidney weakness, a restriction of kidney function or acute or chronic kidney failure. In individual cases, creatinine levels may also be elevated due to dehydration, medication or dietary supplements. Injuries to the muscles, muscular dystrophy or an inflammation of the skin (dermatomyositis) and muscles (polymyositis) can also be a cause.
Common causes of kidney damage are:
– Severe general diseases
– Inflammations, sepsis
– Painkiller abuse
To detect mild kidney damage that is in the creatinine-blind range, calculation formulas have been developed that allow kidney function (glomerular filtration rate) to be derived from creatinine, age and sex, for example the GFR calculation formula according to MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) and CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration). Both indicate how many millilitres of blood per minute are filtered in the kidney.
The BIOMED reagent for urea is used according to the IFCC method for the quantitative in vitro determination of urea in human serum, plasma and urine.
Urea (carbamide, the diamide of carbonic acid) is an end product of protein and amino acid metabolism and is formed in the liver. During protein breakdown, the proteins are broken down into amino acids and deaminated. The resulting ammonia is converted into urea in the mitochondria via a chain of reactions known as the urea cycle. Urea elimination takes place mainly renally by glomerular filtration. 40 – 60% of the filtered urea diffuses back into the proximal tubule independent of the tubular flow rate. The back diffusion in the distal tubule depends on the urine flow and is controlled by the antidiuretic hormone. The urea concentration in serum is therefore dependent on:
– Kidney Circulation
– Urine volume
Urica (uric acid)
The BIOMED Urica Reagent is used according to the PAP method for the quantitative in vitro determination of Urica (uric acid) in human serum, plasma and urine.
The daily uric acid intake into the uric acid pool is composed of endogenous uric acid synthesis, about 350 mg/day and the purine intake from food of over 300 mg/day. Uric acid or its ionised form urate are the end products of the purine metabolism in humans. The level of the pool in the body is the balance of formation and elimination. More than 80 % of the elimination takes place via the kidneys and less than 20 % via the intestines.
Hyper- and hypouricemia primarily do not represent a disease. While hyperuricemia is a metabolic risk factor and can cause defined diseases, hypouricemia has only limited disease value. The determination of uric acid excretion in the urine is important to clarify the causes of hyper- and hypouricemia. The distinction between uric acid overproduction and reduced renal elimination is made by determining the uric acid excretion in the 24 h collecting urine or the uric acid / creatinine quotient in spontaneous urine.
The BIOMED Cystatin C Reagent is a turbidimetric immunoassay for the quantitative in vitro determination of Cystatin C in human serum and plasma.
Cystatin C is a low-molecular, non-glycosylated, basic protein that belongs to the cystatin superfamily as a protease inhibitor in blood. Cystatin-C is produced endogenously at a constant rate by almost all nucleated cells in the human body. Its serum concentration depends exclusively on the glomerular filtration capacity of the kidney; there is no tubular secretion. In contrast to the determination of GFR by creatinine, age, sex, muscle mass and nutrition have no influence on the result. Inflammatory processes (except autoimmune diseases) also do not influence the value of cystatin C. Cystatin C already becomes noticeable at a GFR of less than 88 mL/min/1.73 m², while creatinine only increases at a GFR of less than 75 mL/min/1.73 m². With a reduced GFR the concentration of cystatin C increases.
An increase of cystatin C in the blood is an indication of impaired kidney function.
From the level of the measured value of cystatin C in the blood, conclusions can be drawn about kidney performance. In particular, the so-called glomerular filtration rate (a measure of renal performance) can be estimated.
Cystatin C is elevated at:
– renal failure
– Autoimmune diseases
The BIOMED α-amylase reagent is used for a colour test for the kinetic determination of α-amylase in human serum, plasma and urine (modified EPS method).
The α-amylase activity of the serum originates mainly from the pancreas and the oral salivary glands, in minimal proportions also from the ovary and fallopian tubes and in rare cases neoplastic tissue. As with lipase, a proenzyme can be detected in the acinus epithelium, but it does not appear extracellular. In healthy individuals, > 99% of the enzyme is released into the gastrointestinal tract, while organ outflow disorders lead to an increased transfer into the circulation. An increase in serum activity does not reflect the severity of the disease, and conversely, extensive destruction of the secretory parenchyma has no effect on the concentration of pancreatic amylase and lipase in the serum. Serum activity shows a typical age profile with high individual variations.
Elevated levels of α amylase can indicate various diseases:
– Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
– Pancreatic tumors
– Kidney weakness (renal insufficiency)
– Salivary gland diseases
– Lung and uterus cancer
– Diabetic ketoacidosis
The BIOMED Pancreas α-Amylase Reagent is an enzymatic colour test for the quantitative in vitro determination of pancreas α-amylase in human serum, plasma and urine. The pancreas has two main functions. The endocrine function (islets of Langerhans) and the exocrine function. In the exocrine function, mainly digestive enzymes are produced, such as the pancreas-specific α amylase. The detection is specific to the organ. The diagnostic value of pancreatic α-amylase is superior to α-amylase especially in discrete pancreatopathies. The confirmation of acute pancreatitis can be achieved with a diagnostic sensitivity of 97% using pancreatic amylase. Pancreatic amylase often returns to normal serum concentrations within a short period of time (24 – 48 h), while serum lipase remains elevated for several days. The simultaneous determination of pancreatic amylase and lipase ensures the best diagnostic accuracy.
Creatin Kinase (CK-NAC)
The BIOMED Creatine Kinase (CK-NAC) Reagent is used according to the IFCC method for the determination of total creatine kinase in human serum and plasma.
The total CK activity corresponds predominantly to the activity of the muscle-specific isoenzyme CK-MM and can therefore serve as a lead enzyme for the detection of damage to heart and skeletal muscles. Nevertheless, on the one hand, activities remaining within the reference range do not reliably rule out muscle disease and, on the other hand, increased activity can also have physiological causes. Progress examinations (enzyme-time curves), as well as the determination of CK isoenzymes and variants or stress tests in the case of unclear images, always facilitate interpretation.
Elevated total CK values are an indication of heart or skeletal muscle disease:
– progressive muscular dystrophy
– Post-Polio Syndrome
– Myositis (inflammatory disease of the skeletal muscles)
– Heart muscle inflammation
– Heart attack
– Coronary heart disease (CHD)
– Rhabdomyolysis (muscle dissolution)
The BIOMED α-HBDH Reagent is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of α-HBDH (Alpha-Hydroxybutyrate Dehydrogenase) in human serum and plasma according to the optimised standard method (DGKC).
α-HBDH is the isoenzyme 1 of LDH and catalyses the conversion of lactic acid to pyruvic acid. In contrast to the other isoenzymes, LDH 1 can convert 2-oxobutyrate to hydroxybutyrate and is therefore also called hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and can therefore be measured separately.
It is mainly localized in the myocardium and the hematopoietic system. Increased α-HBDH activities can therefore be detected in myocardial infarction, but also in haemolytic processes of all kinds.
- Zur Kalibration:
Unser Multianalyt-Kalibrator Duocal® Multi
The BIOMED Myoglobin Reagent is a turbidimetric immunoassay for the quantitative in vitro determination of myoglobin in human serum and plasma.
Myoglobin (Mb) is a hemo-protein present in heart and skeletal muscle cells that is released into the bloodstream when these cells are damaged. Its function is the absorption and release of oxygen and the intramuscular transport of oxygen from the cell membrane to the mitochondria. Increased myoglobin concentration in mammalian blood serum indicates rhabdomyolysis. The determination of Mb serum levels is therefore useful in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, myositis and myopathy as well as in the assessment of treatment and disease prognosis.
The BIOMED Iron Reagent is used according to the Ferrozine method for the quantitative in vitro determination of iron in human serum and plasma. Iron (ferrum) is an important trace element in the body. It is used to bind oxygen to the haemoglobin of the red blood cells (erythrocytes) and thus ensures the transport of oxygen. The iron concentration can vary and is not solely dependent on food intake. It depends on various factors. On the one hand, there is a fluctuation of 12.9% in healthy persons during the course of the day and 26.6% from day to day when blood is taken at the same time.
In acute inflammations and chronic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, malignant tumours, the iron concentration is lowered regardless of the body iron status.
– Iron deficiency anaemia
– Iron distribution disorders, e.g. inflammations, infections, tumours, liver damage
– Determination of the transferrin saturation
– Iron Resorption Test
– Acute iron overload / intoxication
– Iron loss due to bleeding, such as gastrointestinal bleeding (e.g. in the case of gastric ulcer)
– Celiac disease (reduced iron absorption in the intestine)
The BIOMED hsFerritin Reagent is a turbidimetric immunoassay for the quantitative in vitro determination of ferritin in human serum and plasma.
The protein ferritin is the most important iron store in the human body, its normal values vary greatly depending on age and sex. The ferritin in plasma shows a direct and quantitative correlation to the mobilisable storage iron in healthy people and in patients with iron deficiency or iron overload. In its function as an acute-phase protein, elevated concentrations of ferritin can be detected in connection with inflammatory and necrotic processes, such as hepatitis or heart attack. Serum ferritin concentration is pathologically elevated in a number of solid tumors (hepatomas, pancreatic carcinomas, bronchial carcinomas, neuroblastomas) and in lymphomas and leukoses and correlates with tumor activity and spread. However, with regard to the desired tumor specificity, the clinical data available so far are controversial. Since ferritin can also be present in very high concentrations in the case of inflammations caused, for example, by acute, chronic diseases or infections, a high ferritin concentration is possible even though there is an iron deficiency. Here the determination of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) or the iron transport molecule transferrin can be useful to exclude a misinterpretation of the measurement results due to high serum levels of ferritin.
Low ferritin values are an indication of:
– Diseases that prevent iron absorption (Sprue, Crohn’s disease)
– Malnutrition (e.g. alcoholism or vegan diet)
– Malabsorption syndrome
– Increased iron requirements (e.g. during pregnancy, lactation and growth phase)
– Iron loss (e.g. menstrual bleeding, bleeding in case of gastric ulcer)
– Transferrin deficiency (e.g. in certain kidney diseases)
Increased ferritin values occur:
– Hemochromatosis (iron storage disease)
– Iron overload
– Iron distribution disorders (e.g. due to hepatitis, infections, tumours, uremia, liver damage, haemolysis)
– Iron utilization disorder (e.g. due to anemia, folic acid or vitamin B21 deficiency, hemoglobinopathies)
– Overdoses of iron preparations
– Frequent blood transfusions
The analyte-specific Duocal® Ferritin-Set
The BIOMED Transferrin Reagent is a turbidimetric immunoassay for the quantitative in vitro determination of transferrin in human serum.
Transferrin is the most important transport protein for iron in the blood and for tissue function. The iron is provided either from the storage iron reserve or from the absorbed food. The concentration of transferrin in plasma is controlled by the iron content of the tissue, especially hepatocytes. If their iron content is low, the synthesis of transferrin is increased; if it is high, it is reduced.
– Suspected lack of functional iron
– Suspicion of iron overload
By determining iron and transferrin from a sample the transferrin saturation (TfS) can be calculated. Compared to the determination of iron concentration in serum, TfS has the advantage that the half-life of transferrin is much longer than that of iron. Rapid fluctuations in serum iron concentration are therefore less important for TfS.
Limitations of the TfS:
In the acute-phase reaction, transferrin synthesis is suppressed.
Transferrin is released into the plasma by the hepatocyte in case of parenchyma damage.
During pregnancy, the transferrin synthesis is higher than the decrease in total body iron.
An increase in TfS only occurs when the storage iron reserve is empty and there is a drop in haemoglobin of at least 2 g/dL.
The analyte-specific calibrator set Duocal® Transferrin
The BIOMED Cholesterol Reagent is used according to the CHOD-PAP method for the quantitative in vitro determination of cholesterol in human serum and plasma.
Dyslipidemia, especially hypercholesterolemia, is one of the major risk factors for coronary heart disease. Cholesterol is synthesized ubiquitously in the body and is an essential component of cell membranes and lipoproteins as well as a precursor for the synthesis of steroid hormones and bile acid. In contrast to the triglycerides and phospholipids, which are also endogenously synthesized, the sterol ring of the cholesterol molecule can no longer be broken down. It is therefore necessary that the cholesterol synthesized peripherally or absorbed in the intestine is transported to the liver, where it is partly converted into bile acid, and partly via the bile, which serves as an emulsifying agent and is excreted via the intestine. Due to its low solubility in water, cholesterol is transported in plasma exclusively as a complex with apolipoproteins. The main part of cholesterol is transported in the LDL fraction, the rest in the HDL and VLDL fraction and only little in the chylomicrons.
Elevated cholesterol levels are associated with:
– Atherosclerosis (a form of hardening of the arteries)
– Risk of stroke (also: apoplexy, cerebral insult)
– Risk of heart attack (also: myocardial infarction)
– Risk for cardiovascular diseases in general
The multianalyte quality control Duorol® normal/abnormal
HDL (High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol)
The BIOMED Reagent HDL is a homogeneous enzymatic test for the quantitative in vitro determination of HDL (High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol) in human serum and plasma.
HDL cholesterol (High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) is a high density transport protein and is responsible for the transport of the membrane building block cholesterol. Since HDL mediates the removal of cholesterol from the tissue and is able to remove excess cholesterol that has been stored in the vessel walls, HDL is in principle anti-atherogenic.
The HDL concentration is determined when the doctor wants to assess the risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). This risk is increased if the HDL cholesterol is too low. Low HDL cholesterol is therefore considered a risk marker for the occurrence of cardiovascular events. In particular, the importance of HDL cholesterol has increased with the introduction of direct determination methods. The simplified measuring principle as well as the much more precise determination allow routine diagnostics of this analyte.
Our analyte-specific calibrator Duocal® HDL
LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterin)
The BIOMED reagent LDL is a homogeneous enzymatic test for the quantitative in vitro determination of LDL (low density lipoprotein cholesterol) in human serum and plasma.
Elevated LDL concentrations are of causal importance in the development of atherosclerosis. The atherogenic potential of this lipoprotein fraction has been demonstrated in numerous epidemiological and clinical studies. Among all lipid and lipoprotein variables, LDL cholesterol showed the strictest association with coronary mortality in the Göttingen Risk, Incidence and Prevalence Study (GRIPS). LDL cholesterol thus represents an important, if not the most important risk determinant for the detection of persons with increased coronary risk, if not next to HDL cholesterol.
– Early detection of a risk of atherosclerosis
– Follow-up of therapy with lipid-lowering drugs
our analyte-specific calibrator Duocal® LDL
The BIOMED Triglyceride Reagent is used according to the GPO-PAP method for the quantitative in vitro determination of triglycerides in human serum and plasma.
Triglycerides (triacylglycerols, glycerol esters, neutral fats, glycerides) are esters of glycerol with 3 fatty acid residues. Exogenous triglycerides are ingested with food and endogenous triglycerides are synthesized from L-glycerol-3-phosphate via phosphatidic acid and diglyceride mainly in liver, kidney and heart muscle. Transport in the blood takes place in lipoproteins, especially chylomicrons and VLDL. Hydrolysis can produce free fatty acids, degradation (pankr. triglyceride lipase) produces monoglycerides. Physiological significance: mainly as a supplier of energy.
– Early detection of atherosclerosis risk and classification of hyperlipoproteinemia.
– Control of dietary and drug lipid-lowering therapy.
The Multianalyte Quality Control Duotrol® normal/abnormal
The BIOMED Glucose (HK) Reagent is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of glucose in human serum, plasma, liquor and urine by the hexokinase method.
The BIOMED Glucose (PAP) Reagent is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of glucose in human serum, plasma and liquor by the PAP method.
Blood glucose can be determined in capillary and venous whole blood, plasma or serum. Different glucose concentrations are determined in different specimens in the same person at the same time.This must be taken into account in the clinical evaluation. In Europe, glucose determination is mainly performed in capillary whole blood, in the USA in venous whole blood or venous plasma. The determination in serum should only be used in exceptional circumstances. The intra-individual fluctuations in blood glucose concentrations are greater than for other blood parameters due to the dependence on muscle work and the time interval between feeding. Dysregulations such as insulin deficiency or hyperinsulinism further increase the fluctuations.
consequences of hypoglycaemia (“hypoglycaemia”):
– Decreased brain power
– Increased adrenaline release
– Shaky hands and sweating
The causes can be the rare insulinoma or the early phase of type 2 diabetes. It can also be a side effect of medication in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Disturbances in the hormone balance caused by an underfunction of the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland or the adrenal cortex can also lead to low blood sugar levels.
Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar level) occurs:
– diabetes mellitus
– Gestational diabetes (also: gestational diabetes)
– Diseases of the pancreas
– Hormone disorders caused by tumours in the adrenal medulla or tumours of the pituitary gland
– Rare genetic diseases
– As a side effect of medication
The consequences can be a feeling of thirst, increased urge to urinate and visual disturbances. In the long term, hyperglycemia leads to vascular damage (resulting in atherosclerosis, stroke and kidney weakness) and tissue damage, and even life-threatening coma can occur.
The BIOMED Reagent Calcium is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of calcium in human serum, plasma and urine according to the photometric test method (CPC) with automatic clinical chemistry analyzers.
About 1% of total body calcium is renewed daily.Absorption occurs mainly in the duodenum and upper jejunum by a Ca2+-binding protein system of the mucous membrane. The formation of this protein is induced by the vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3. Part of the Ca2+ absorption is independent of vitamin D. It is excreted via the kidneys and the intestines. The glomerular filtered Ca2+ is tubularly reabsorbed to 94 – 96 %. Ca2+ excreted in the intestine through digestion is reabsorbed up to 90 %. A constant plasma concentration is set by the parathyroid hormone produced in the parathyroid glands.
In addition to its importance as bone material, Ca2+ also has important tasks in cell function. It is necessary for the triggering of contractile processes, the transmission of nerve impulses and hormonal signals and for the control of secretory mechanisms.
A calcium deficiency (hypocalcemia) can be associated with:
– Protein (albumin) deficiency (e.g. in liver cirrhosis)
– Impaired vitamin D or calcium intake (e.g. in celiac disease or rickets)
– kidney diseases, e.g. kidney weakness (renal insufficiency)
– hormonal disorders (e.g. hypoparathyroidism, acute pancreatitis)
– Bone diseases, e.g. osteoporosis (bone loss)
– Certain drugs (antiepileptic drugs, cortisone, laxatives)
Possible reasons for excess calcium (hypercalcemia):
– Malignant tumors
– Hyperparathyroidism (hyperactivity of the parathyroid glands)
– Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid)
– Subfunction of the adrenal cortex
– Inherited disorders of calcium excretion
– Hypophosphatasia (inherited deficiency of the enzyme phosphatase)
– Hyperproteinemia (excess of protein in the blood)
– Acromegaly (increased production of growth hormones)
The multianalyte quality controls Duotrol® Urin liquid
The BIOMED Magnesium Reagent is a xylidyl blue monoreagent and is used in the Photometric Colour Test for the quantitative in vitro determination of magnesium in human serum, plasma, liquor and urine.
Magnesium is important for glycolysis, cell respiration and transmembrane calcium transport. This explains its importance for physiological neuromuscular excitation. In the muscle cell, magnesium acts as an antagonist of calcium. Magnesium has a similar distribution in the organism to potassium. Only about 1 % of the total is found in plasma (65 – 84 % ionized), 60 % in bone tissue and 40 % in skeletal muscles. One of the most important functions of magnesium is the activation of Na-K-ATPase, which reveals its important role in cardiac arrhythmia. The pathophysiological relationships between magnesium deficiency and the clinical symptoms are complex and partly not yet clarified. The association of hypomagnesemia and hypertension or hypermagnesemia and hypotension seems remarkable. The regulation of the magnesium balance probably takes place less through absorption in the entire small intestine, which seems to depend linearly on the content of the food, than through the level of real excretion. This in turn, together with calcium, is subject to the influence of parathyroid hormone, in which magnesium resorption is competitively inhibited as the reabsorption of calcium increases. Magnesium excretion is also increased in hyperaldosteronism.
The multianalyte quality controls Duotrol® Urin liquid
CRP – C-reactive protein
The BIOMED CRP Reagent is a turbidimetric immunoassay for the quantitative in vitro determination of C-reactive protein CRP in human serum and plasma.
CRP is synthesized in the liver. It is a classic acute-phase protein and historically one of the first to be discovered. During an inflammatory reaction, the CRP concentration in the plasma increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 within hours due to the release of inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6), but drops rapidly once the inflammation has subsided. However, the value gives no indication of where in the body the infection and/or inflammation occurs. Possible inflammations are for example cystitis, appendicitis, pneumonia or pancreatitis. CRP is also elevated in the chronic inflammatory bowel disease Crohn’s disease and rheuamtoid arthritis (“rheumatism”).
Malignant tumours such as Hodgkin’s disease (also known as Hodgkin’s lymphoma) or renal cell carcinoma can also trigger an acute phase reaction through the formation of cytokines, which induces fever and an increased concentration of CRP in the plasma. Another possible cause of high CRP values is an acute heart attack.
In summary, CRP has the following functions:
– Detect and trigger the disposal of used tissue cells and their products such as DNA, which can be toxic or allergenic.
– Acting as a non-adaptive defence mechanism by opsonizing invading microorganisms for phagocytosis. This mechanism is supported by CRP analogue of the pentraxin family (these are proteins with immune defence properties); this is particularly important for primitive non-vertebrates who do not have an immune system.
To match with:
The analyte-specific quality controls Duotrol® CRP in various measuring ranges
Immunglobulin E – IgE
The BIOMED IgE Reagent is a turbidimetric immunoassay for the quantitative in vitro determination of immunoglobulin E – IgE in human serum and plasma.
Immunoglobulins consist of two light (L) and two heavy (H) chains. IgE occurs predominantly as a monomer and is also called a reagent. IgE antibodies mediate the type I hypersensitivity reaction of the immediate type. Polyvalent antigens, such as grass pollen, house dust mite, components of food, parasites or insect bites, stimulate B cells of the mucous membranes at the entry portal to form specific IgE through the mediation of CD4+ cells. This binds via Fc receptors to mast cells, which are now sensitised. At the next contact of the antigen with the mast cell, bound IgE antibodies are cross-linked, the cell is degranulated and mediators are released which, for example, cause the symptoms of hay fever, asthma and atopic eczema.
IgE is not placental and does not activate complement.
For the calibration:
The analyte-specific Duocal® IgE-Set
Click here for our reagent spectrum.