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Reagents Clinical Chemistry2022-11-25T13:50:34+01:00

Reagenzien Anker

GOT (Aspartat-Aminotransferase – AST): IFCC method for determination in serum and plasma
GPT (Alanin-Aminotransferase – ALT): IFCC method for determination in serum and plasma
Pyridoxalphosphat (PYP): Additive reagent for GOT (AST) and GPT (ALT) – Liquid Pyridoxal-5-phosphate
Total Protein (TP): Biuret method for determination in serum and plasma
Uric acid (Urica): PAP method for determination in serum, plasma and urine
Cystatin C: Turbidimetric immunoassay for determination in serum and plasma
Pankreas-alpha-Amylase: Enzymatic color test for determination in serum, plasma and urine
α-HBDH: Optimized standard method (DGKC) for determination in serum and plasma
Ferritin: Turbidimetric immunoassay for determination in serum and plasma
Transferrin: Turbidimetric immunoassay for determination in serum
Cholesterin: CHOD-PAP method for determination in serum and plasma
HDL (High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterin): Direct detection in serum and plasma
LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterin): Direct detection in serum and plasma
Triglyceride: GPO-PAP method for determination in serum and plasma
Glucose: Hexokinase method for determination in serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine
Glucose: PAP method – enzymatic color test for the determination of blood glucose in serum, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid
Magnesium: Photometric color test for determination in serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine
Immunglobulin E (IgE): Turbidimetric immunoassay for determination in serum and plasma

GOT Anker

GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, new: aspartate aminotransferase AST)

BIOMED Reagenz for GOT (Glutamat-Oxalacetat-Transaminase, new: Aspartat-Aminotransferase AST) is used according to the IFCC method for the quantitative in vitro determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (also: GOT, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) with and without pyridoxal phosphate (Pyp) in human serum and plasma.

Transaminase determinations are basic tests for the diagnosis, differentiation, progression and therapeutic evaluation of:
– Liver and biliary tract disease
– myocardial infarction
– skeletal muscle damage
– in initial internal medicine and pediatric examinations
There is no evidence that transaminase synthesis is increased in liver or skeletal muscle disease.
AST is present in a variety of tissues, including liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, kidney, brain, pancreas, lung, leukocytes, and erythrocytes.
Liver, heart and skeletal muscle have relatively high specific activity of AST compared to other organs. Parallel increase of AST and ALT always indicates hepatocellular necrosis. AST is of essential importance in the differential diagnosis of liver diseases and in the assessment of the course of myocardial infarction.

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Aspartate-Aminotransferase IFCC-Method

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GPT Anker

ALT IFCC-Method

GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase, new: alanine aminotransferase ALT)

BIOMED GPT (Glutamat-Pyruvat-Transaminase, new: Alanin-Aminotransferase ALT)

Reagent is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (also: GPT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase) with and without pyridoxal phosphate (Pyp) in human serum and plasma according to the IFCC method.

Transaminase determinations are basic tests for diagnosis, differentiation, progression and therapy assessment of:
– Disease of the liver and bile ducts
– myocardial infarction
– skeletal muscle damage
– in initial internal medicine and pediatric examinations.
There is no evidence that transaminase synthesis is increased in liver or skeletal muscle disease.
ALT is a liver-specific enzyme. Greater than 15-fold increased ALT activities, or parallel increase in ALT and AST, are indicative of hepatocellular necrosis. However, lower ALT activities also occur in other tissues e.g. kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, pancreas, spleen and lung.

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PYP Anker

Pyridoxal phosphate (PYP)

Additional reagent for GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, new: aspartate aminotransferase AST) and GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase, new: alanine aminotransferase ALT): fluid Pyridoxal-5-phosphat (PYP)

Pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PYP) is required for the determination of GOT/GPT activity by the IFCC method with pyridoxal phosphate activation.
PYP is important as a coenzyme for the activation of transaminases. In patients with vitamin B6 deficiency or in samples with insufficient endogenous pyridoxal phosphate, e.g., in patients with myocardial infarction, liver disease, or in intensive care patients, falsely low activities may be measured without pyridoxal phosphate supplementation. Depletion of NADH would occur in the AST approach if pyruvate were not removed in the pre-incubation step.
would be removed. Therefore, activation with PYP is recommended for optimal determination and stabilization of transaminases.

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Pyridoxalphosphate (PYP)

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TP Anker

Total protein

Total protein

BIOMED Reagent for Total Protein is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of total protein in human serum and plasma according to the Biuret method.

Total protein consists of more than 100 structurally known proteins, and the biological function of about 50 is known in more detail. For example, plasma proteins are mainly composed of immunoglobulins, transport proteins (such as albumin), enzymes, lipoproteins, proteohormones, and coagulation factors. Serum is somewhat lower in protein because clotting factors have been depleted for blood clotting. Albumin, α1, α2, and β-globulins are produced by the parenchymal cells of the liver, and the proteins of the γ-globulin fraction and immunoglobulins are produced by plasma cells.
There are known diseases that either increase the total protein concentration (hyperproteinemia) or decrease it (hypoproteinemia).
Indications for the determination of TP are e.g. pathological blood sedimentation reaction, proteinuria, edema, polyuria, chron. Kidney disease, chron. Liver disease, chron. Diarrhea, malignant tumor, susceptibility to infections, bone pain, rheumatism that cannot be localized, lymphoma, external and internal bleeding, pregnancy, pre- and postoperative, severe trauma, shock, burns, intensive care patients, for clarification of an acute hemoglobin drop.

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Harnsäure Anker

Urica (uric acid)

BIOMED Urica reagent is used by the PAP method for the quantitative in vitro determination of urica (uric acid) in human serum, plasma and urine.

The daily uric acid intake into the uric acid pool is composed of endogenous uric acid synthesis, about 350 mg/day and dietary purine intake of over 300 mg/day. Uric acid or its ionized form urate are the end products of purine metabolism in humans. The level of the pool in the body is the balance of formation and elimination. Elimination is more than 80% by the kidneys and less than 20% by the intestines.
Hyperuricemia and hypouricemia do not primarily represent disease. While hyperuricemia is a metabolic risk factor and can cause defined diseases, hypouricemia has only limited disease value. The determination of uric acid excretion in the urine is important for the clarification of the cause of hyperuricemia and hypouricemia.
Uric acid overproduction can be distinguished from reduced renal elimination by determining uric acid excretion in 24 h urine collection or the uric acid/creatinine quotient in spontaneous urine.

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Urica

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Cystatin Anker

Cystatin C Reagent and Calibrator

Cystatin C

BIOMED Cystatin C Reagent is used as a turbidimetric immunoassay for the quantitative in vitro determination of Cystatin C in human serum and plasma.

Cystatin C is a low molecular weight, non-glycosylated, basic protein that belongs to the cystatin superfamily as a protease inhibitor in blood. Cystatin-C is endogenously produced at a constant rate by almost all nucleated cells of the human body. Its serum concentration depends exclusively on the glomerular filtration capacity of the kidney; tubular secretion does not occur. Unlike the determination of GFR by creatinine, age, sex, muscle mass, and diet do not affect the result, nor do inflammatory processes (except autoimmune diseases) influence the value of cystatin C. Cystatin C becomes conspicuous at a GFR of less than 88 mL/min/1.73 m², whereas creatinine only increases at a GFR of less than 75 mL/min/1.73 m². With a decreased GFR, the concentration of cystatin C increases.

An increase in cystatin C in the blood is an indication of impaired renal function.
The level of cystatin C measured in the blood can be used to draw conclusions about renal performance. In particular, the so-called glomerular filtration rate (a measure of kidney performance) can be estimated.

Cystatin C is elevated in:
– renal insufficiency
– autoimmune diseases

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α-HBDH Anker

Cardio control sera clinical chemistry

α-HBDH (Alpha-Hydroxybutyrat-Dehydrogenase)

BIOMED α-HBDH Reagent is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of α-HBDH (alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase) in human serum and plasma by the optimized standard method (DGKC).

The α-HBDH is isoenzyme 1 of LDH and catalyzes the conversion of lactic acid to pyruvic acid. LDH 1, unlike the other isoenzymes, can convert 2-oxobutyrate to hydroxybutyrate and is therefore also called hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH) and can thus be measured separately.
It is mainly localized in the myocardium and the hematopoietic system. Increased α-HBDH activities can therefore be detected in myocardial infarction, but also in hemolytic processes of all kinds.

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Ferritin Anker

High sensitive Ferritin

Ferritin

BIOMED hsFerritin Reagent is used as a turbidimetric immunoassay for the quantitative in vitro determination of ferritin in human serum and plasma.

The protein ferritin is the most important iron store in the human body, and its normal values vary greatly according to age and sex. Plasma ferritin shows a direct and quantitative correlation with mobilizable storage iron in healthy individuals and in patients with iron deficiency or iron overload.
In its function as an acute-phase protein, increased concentrations of ferritin can be detected in the context of inflammatory and necrotic processes, such as hepatitis or myocardial infarction. Serum ferritin concentration is pathologically elevated in a number of solid tumors (hepatomas, pancreatic carcinomas, bronchial carcinomas, neuroblastomas) and in lymphomas and leukoses and correlates with tumor activity and spread. However, with regard to desirable tumor specificity, clinical data to date are controversial.

Since ferritin can also be present in very high concentrations during inflammation caused, for example, by acute, chronic diseases or infections, a high ferritin concentration is possible although iron deficiency is present. In this case, determination of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) or the iron transport molecule transferrin may be useful to rule out misinterpretation of the measurement results due to high serum levels of ferritin.

Low ferritin levels are indicative of:
– Diseases that prevent iron absorption (sprue, Crohn’s disease).
– malnutrition (e.g. alcoholism or vegan diet)
– Malabsorption syndrome
– Increased iron requirement (e.g. during pregnancy, lactation and growth phase)
– Iron loss (e.g. menstrual bleeding, bleeding due to gastric ulcer)
– Transferrin deficiency (e.g. in certain kidney diseases)

Elevated ferritin levels occur in:
– Hemochromatosis (iron storage disease).
– iron overload
– Iron distribution disorders (e.g. due to hepatitis, infections, tumors, uremia, liver damage, hemolysis)
– Iron utilization disorders (e.g. due to anemia, folic acid or vitamin B21 deficiency, hemoglobinopathies)
– Overdoses of iron supplements
– Frequent blood transfusions

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Transferrin Anker

Transferrin

BIOMED Transferrin Reagent is used as a turbidimetric immunoassay for the quantitative in vitro determination of transferrin in human serum.

Transferrin is the major transport protein for iron in the blood and for tissue function. Iron is provided either from the storage iron reserve or from absorbed food. The transferrin concentration in plasma is controlled by the iron content in tissues, especially hepatocytes. If their iron content is low, transferrin synthesis is increased; if it is high, downregulation occurs.
Indication:
– Suspected deficiency of functional iron
– Suspicion of iron overload
By determining iron and transferrin from one sample, transferrin saturation (TfS) can be calculated. Compared to the determination of serum iron concentration, TfS has the advantage that the half-life of transferrin is much longer than that of iron. Rapid fluctuations in serum iron concentration are therefore less likely to be reflected in TfS.
Limitations of TfS:
In the acute phase reaction, transferrin synthesis is suppressed.
Transferrin is released from the hepatocyte into the plasma during parenchymal injury.
In pregnancy, transferrin synthesis is higher than the decrease in total body iron.
An increase in TfS occurs only when there is a drop in hemoglobin of at least 2 g/dL with an empty storage iron reserve.

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Transferrin Reagent

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Cholesterin Anker

Reagenzien für die Diagnostik von koronaren Erkrankungen

Cholesterol

BIOMED Cholesterin Reagent is used by the CHOD-PAP method for the quantitative in vitro determination of cholesterol in human serum and plasma.

Dyslipidemias, especially hypercholesterolemia, represent one of the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease.
Cholesterol is ubiquitously synthesized in the body and is an essential component of cell membranes and lipoproteins, as well as a precursor for the synthesis of steroid hormones and bile acid. Unlike triglycerides and phospholipids, which are also endogenously synthesized, the sterol ring of the cholesterol molecule cannot be degraded. It is therefore necessary for cholesterol synthesized peripherally or absorbed in the intestine to be transported to the liver, where it is partly converted into bile acid, and partly via bile, which serves as an emulsifying agent and is excreted via the intestine. Cholesterol is transported in plasma exclusively as a complex with apolipoproteins because of its low water solubility. The majority of cholesterol is transported in the LDL fraction, the remainder in the HDL and VLDL fractions, and only a small amount in the chylomicrons.

Elevated cholesterol levels are associated with:
– Atherosclerosis (a form of hardening of the arteries).
– risk of stroke (also: apoplexy, cerebral insult)
– risk of heart attack (also: myocardial infarction)
– Risk of cardiovascular diseases in general

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HDL Anker

HDL (High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol)

BIOMED Reagent HDL is used as a homogeneous enzymatic assay for the quantitative in vitro determination of HDL (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) in human serum and plasma.

HDL (High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol) is a high density transport protein responsible for the transport of the membrane component cholesterol. Since HDL mediates the removal of cholesterol from the tissues and is able to remove excess cholesterol that has been deposited in the vessel walls, HDL has a principally anti-atherogenic effect.
HDL concentration is determined when the physician wants to assess the risk of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease (CHD). This risk is increased when HDL cholesterol is too low. Low HDL cholesterol is thus considered a risk marker for the occurrence of cardiovascular events. In particular, the importance of HDL cholesterol has increased with the introduction of direct determination methods. The simplified measurement principle as well as the much more precise determination allow routine diagnostics of this analyte.

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Reagent HDL-Direct High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol

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LDL Anker

LDL Reagenz Klinische Chemie

LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol)

BIOMED Reagent LDL is used as a homogeneous enzymatic assay for the quantitative in vitro determination of LDL (low density lipoprotein cholesterol) in human serum and plasma.

Elevated LDL concentrations are of causal importance in atherosclerosis development. The atherogenic potential of this lipoprotein fraction has been demonstrated in numerous epidemiological and clinical studies. Among all lipid and lipoprotein variables, LDL cholesterol showed the strictest association with coronary mortality in the Göttingen Risk, Incidence and Prevalence Study (GRIPS). LDL cholesterol thus represents an important risk determinant, if not the most important one next to HDL cholesterol, for the detection of individuals at increased coronary risk.

Indication:
– Early detection of atherosclerosis risk.
– Follow-up of therapy with lipid-lowering drugs

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Triglyceride Anker

Triglycerides

BIOMED Triglyceride Reagent is used according to the GPO-PAP method for the quantitative in vitro determination of triglycerides in human serum and plasma.

Triglycerides (triacylglycerols, glycerol esters, neutral fats, glycerides) are esters of glycerol with 3 fatty acid residues. Exogenous triglycerides are ingested with food and endogenous ones are synthesized mainly in liver, kidney and heart muscle from L-glycerol-3-phosphate via phosphatidic acid u. diglyceride. Transport in the blood takes place in lipoproteins, especially chylomicrons and VLDL. Free fatty acids can be formed by hydrolysis, monoglycerides are formed by degradation (pankr. triglyceride lipase). Physiological significance: mainly as an energy supplier.
Indication:
– Early detection of atherosclerosis risk and classification of hyperlipoproteinemia.
– Control of dietary and drug lipid-lowering therapy.

To match with:

Triglyceride Reagent PAP method

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Glucose Anker

Glucose Reagent

Glucose

BIOMED Glucose (HK) Reagent is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of glucose in human serum, plasma, CSF and urine by the hexokinase method.

BIOMED Glucose (PAP)

Reagent is used for the quantitative in vitro determination of glucose in human serum, plasma and CSF by the PAP method.

The determination of blood glucose can be performed in capillary and venous whole blood, plasma or serum. In the different specimens, different glucose concentrations are determined in the same person, at the same time of collection. This must be taken into account in the clinical evaluation. In Europe, glucose determination is mainly performed in capillary whole blood, in the USA in venous whole blood or venous plasma. Determination in serum should be used only in exceptional cases.
Intraindividual variations in blood glucose concentrations are greater than for other blood parameters due to dependence on muscle work and time interval from food intake. Dysregulations such as insulin deficiency or hyperinsulinism magnify the fluctuations.

Consequences of hypoglycemia (“low blood sugar”):
– Decreased brain performance
– Seizures
– Increased adrenaline secretion
– Shaky hands and sweating
– Shock
Causes may include the rare insulinoma or the early phase of type 2 diabetes. It can also be a side effect of medication in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Hormonal imbalances due to hypofunction of the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, or adrenal cortex can also cause low blood glucose levels.

Hyperglycemia (excessive blood glucose) occurs with:
– Diabetes mellitus
– Gestational diabetes (also: pregnancy diabetes)
– Diseases of the pancreas
– Hormone disorders caused by tumors in the adrenal medulla or tumors of the pituitary gland
– Rare hereditary diseases
– As a side effect of medication
Consequences may include feeling thirsty, increased urination and visual disturbances. In the long term, hyperglycemia leads to vascular damage (resulting in atherosclerosis, stroke and kidney weakness) and tissue damage; life-threatening coma can also occur.

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Magnesium Anker

Magnesium Reagenz Klinische Chemie

Magnesium

BIOMED Magnesium Reagent is a xylidyl blue monoreagent and is used in the Photometric Color Assay for the quantitative in vitro determination of magnesium in human serum, plasma, CSF and urine.

Magnesium is important for glycolysis, cellular respiration and transmembrane calcium transport. Hence its importance in physiological neuromuscular excitation. In the muscle cell, magnesium acts as an antagonist of calcium. Magnesium has a distribution in the organism similar to that of potassium. Only about 1% of the total is found in plasma (65 – 84% ionized), 60% in bone tissue and 40% in skeletal muscle.
One of the most important functions of magnesium is the activation of Na-K-ATPase, which reveals its significant role in cardiac arrhythmias. The pathophysiological relationships of magnesium deficiency and clinical symptoms are complex and, in part, not yet clear. The association of hypomagnesemia and hypertension or hypermagnesemia and hypotension seems remarkable.
Regulation of magnesium balance probably occurs less by absorption throughout the small intestine, which seems to depend linearly on dietary content, than by the level of real excretion. This in turn, together with calcium, is subject to the influence of parathyroid hormone, in which magnesium reabsorption is competitively inhibited as calcium reabsorption increases. Magnesium excretion is also increased in hyperaldosteronism.

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IgE Anker

IgE Reagenz Kalibrator

Immunglobulin E – IgE

BIOMED IgE Reagent is used as a turbidimetric immunoassay for the quantitative in vitro determination of immunoglobulin E – IgE in human serum and plasma.

Immunoglobulins consist of two light (L-) and two heavy (H-) chains. IgE occurs predominantly as a monomer and is also known as reagin. IgE antibodies mediate the type I immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction. Polyvalent antigens, such as grass pollen, house dust mite, components of food, parasites or insect stings, stimulate B cells of the mucous membranes at the port of entry to produce spec. IgE with mediation of CD4+ cells. This binds via Fc receptors to mast cells, which are now sensitized. At the next contact of the antigen with the mast cell, bound IgE antibodies are cross-linked, the cell is degranulated and mediators are released, which e.g. cause the symptoms of hay fever, asthma and atopic eczema.
IgE is not placental and does not activate complement.

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