Clinical Chemistry Controls
The Duotrol® quality controls are lyophilized universal human serum-based precision quality controls with device-dependent target values for up to 40 different analytes in the normal and pathological range.
The parameters contained in the universal control can be divided into different groups:
Electrolytes are compounds that are present in solution as small, charged particles (ions). In the human organism electrolytes are of great importance for the distribution of liquid and the water balance.
The distribution of all the water in the body into the different compartments takes place through the cell membrane by the osmotic pressure. Water can pass through the cell membrane unrestricted and aims for the same ion concentration everywhere. If large electrolyte losses disturb this balance, serious diseases can follow.
Serum osmolality is mainly influenced by the sodium concentration and the metabolites glucose and urea. It is a measure of all particles in solution in the serum and can be used as a criterion for assessing kidney function.
Intermediates (intermediate products) and degradation products of a metabolic pathway are called metabolites. They are formed with the help of enzymes and further converted in the metabolism.
The substances built up during metabolism are called anabolites, those that are broken down are called catabolites.
- Glucose is involved in several metabolic pathways.
- Lactate is a breakdown product of glucose during glycolysis.
- Triglycerides, on the one hand comes from the cleavage of lipases from the food fats, on the other hand they are synthesized in the body in the liver and in fatty tissue from free fatty acids.
- Cholesterol in fat metabolism is the starting material for many compounds.
- Low density lipoproteins (LDL) are formed when VLDL synthesized by the liver is broken down by lipoprotein lipase.
- High density lipoproteins (HDL) are formed as precursors of the intestine and liver and are formed in plasma.
- Bilirubin is mainly formed as a breakdown product of hemoglobin in the reticuloendothelial system.
- Creatinine is a parameter for assessing kidney function.
- The plasma concentration of creatinine depends on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
- In laboratory medicine, the determination of creatinine clearance (creatinine excretion via the kidneys) is used to determine GFR.
- Urea is an end product of the protein and amino acid metabolism in the urea cycle.
- Uric acid is a urinary end product of nucleic acid degradation.
Proteins in plasma are a heterogeneous group of substances with a wide range of tasks: water binding, transport, buffering, clotting control, antibodies.
- The total protein (TP) consists of more than 100 proteins with known structures.
- C-reactive protein (CRP)
- Immunglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM and IgE)
- A special case of immunoglobulins is the rheumatoid factor (RF), which is composed of autoantibodies of different subclasses.
- Transferrin is the most important transport protein for iron in the blood and for tissue function.
Enzymes are biocatalysts that can accelerate a chemical metabolic reaction.
- The α-amylase of the serum is mainly derived from the pancreas (pancreas-α-amylase) and the oral salivary glands. It is responsible for the hydrolysis of starch and glycogen.
- The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a liver-specific enzyme.
- Liver, heart and skeletal muscle have a relatively high specific activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared to other organs.
- Cholinesterase (CHE)
- The creatine kinase (CK-NAC) is an enzyme that is mainly found in mitochondria of skeletal muscle, myocardium and cerebral cortex. The determination of the MB-isoenzyme CK-MB is useful for the detection of myocardial damage.
- The increase of gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT) in serum is one of the most sensitive indicators for the diagnosis and progression of liver and bile duct diseases. The GGT is also used to control chronic alcoholism with other laboratory tests.
- Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyses the reversible oxidation of lactate to pyruvate using NAD as H+ acceptor. The determination of LDH is indicated in case of suspicion or to assess the course of a myocardial infarction, suspicion of pulmonary embolism, differentiation of jaundice, suspicion of haemolytic anaemia, diagnosis of organ damage and to assess the course of malignant tumours.
- Glutamat dehydrogenase (GLDH)
- Lipase is produced in the pancreas and secreted into the intestines. In the duodenum it predominantly cleaves triglycerides to glycerol and fatty acids. In acute pancreatitis, lipase activity increases.
- The alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in serum and plasma corresponds to the sum of all isoenzyme activities of ALP originating from different human tissues.
- Acid phosphatase (SP)
The versatile universal control Duotrol® can be used in different areas due to the many analytes it contains. It can be used in urine diagnostics for serum determinations as well as in protein diagnostics and enzyme diagnostics.
Duotrol® Quality controls
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