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Protein quality controls

Protein quality controls2020-05-12T15:41:37+02:00
Duotrol Protein Control from BIOMED in three ranges of concentration

Protein quality controls

In protein diagnostics, blood plasma proteins, also known as plasma proteins, which circulate between the blood and extracellular fluid spaces, are analysed. Plasma proteins are mainly produced in the liver and in the lymphatic organs of the immune system. Under physiological conditions more than 100 known proteins are present in the blood in constant distribution between the fluid spaces.

Plasma proteins can be divided into different groups according to their function:

Transport proteins

Transport proteins are proteins that specifically enable or facilitate the transport of a substance. The destination of the transported factor can be inside or outside the same cell or elsewhere in a multicellular organism. Transport proteins are often stationary in the cell membrane and enable passive or active transport through the cell membrane.

The transport protein albumin is essential for maintaining colloid osmotic pressure and pH and for the transport of water-insoluble substances, hormones and enzymes in the blood. A decreased serum albumin level is a marker for a synthetic defect of the liver, albumin in urine is an early marker for kidney damage.
Transferrin is the transport protein for iron and is usually 25-30% saturated with iron. An elevated Transferrin level often indicates iron deficiency, while a lower level indicates chronic inflammation, tumor diseases, iron overload or hemolysis.
Haptoglobin is used to transport haemoglobin to the reticuloendothelial system (RES) for degradation and to prevent free haemoglobin from damaging the kidney. Haptoglobin is currently the most sensitive marker for the diagnosis of haemolysis.
Klinisch chemisches Analysengerät
Acute phase protein CRP

As a result of tissue damage, acute-phase proteins are secreted into the blood as part of the unspecific immune reaction (acute-phase reaction). Their tasks are the localisation of the inflammation, the prevention of its spread and the support of the immune system in the rehabilitation of the focus of inflammation.

The C-reactive protein (CRP) is used to assess the severity of inflammatory reactions, as the blood concentration increases with inflammation (non-infectious: tissue damage, infectious: microbial infection).

α-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) is a protease inhibitor that prevents proteins from being decomposed by trypsin. When there is inflammation in the body, the concentration of AAT increases, AAT deficiency indicates a hereditary disease.
The iron storage protein ferritin shows a direct and quantitative correlation to mobilisable storage iron in people with iron deficiency or iron overload. As an acute-phase protein, elevated concentrations of ferritin can be detected in connection with inflammatory and necrotic processes, such as hepatitis or heart attack.
Proteins of the immune defence

The body’s immune system is composed of mechanical barriers (e.g. skin), cellular (e.g. granulocytes) and humoral (liquid) components. The humoral part of the immune system includes various plasma proteins that circulate in the blood and other body fluids.

The immunoglobulins IgA, IgE, IgG and IgM act as antibodies and bind with specific antigens, forming immune complexes and triggering, for example, activation of the complement system and phagocytes. Immunoglobulins are important in the diagnosis of allergies and immune deficiencies.
The complement system belongs to the innate, non-specific, humoral immune defence and comprises about 30 plasma proteins. For diagnostic purposes it is usually sufficient to determine the two factors C3 and C4. Causes of increased values can be infections and inflammations, causes of lowered values autoimmune diseases and immunologically caused diseases.

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Immunglobuline und das Komplementsystem gehören zur Immunabwehr

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